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On Converting Flash to HTML

I received a question from Bob (no, really), who wrote:

I have a question about the newest version of Flash and its HTML publishing option using CreateJS. What do you think of that approach going forward?

I started to write an email response but figured I should probably post it here.

I haven’t been paying much attention to Flash, so I don’t know what the ‘HTML export’ is capable of these days. In general, I’m very wary of converting Flash-based projects to HTML. When Adobe Captivate first released a “publish to HTML5” feature, all it did was convert the SWF animation to a video file, losing all interactivity along the way.

The limitations of the browsers and the HTML5 spec mean you can’t expect a fully 1:1 conversion from Flash to HTML, regardless of libraries like CreateJS. Some of the features found in Flash are still not quite supported in browsers, or might not work quite the way you’d expect. For example, CSS transitions, CSS gradients, and SVG/Canvas support vary widely from browser to browser (though it’s getting better, and there are workarounds aka “polyfills”). Streaming video, which is a breeze in Flash, is not part of the HTML5 Video spec (yet) and is unsupported in browsers. Video and audio codec support is inconsistent. In some cases, devices add new limitations — last time I checked, iOS devices wouldn’t autoplay audio or video in Safari. ‘Play’ couldn’t be scripted, it required the user to press a button.

Publishing to HTML (with the aid of JavaScript libraries like CreateJS) is definitely the way of the future, but I would flip the workflow: use a tool that’s “HTML first”. For my workflow, I always start in HTML then only fall back to Flash if I absolutely have to. I hand-code, but if you want to stick to a WYSIWYG editor, maybe try some of the Adobe Edge products, or go with a third-party product such as Tumult Hype.

If you continue to use Flash as an HTML development tool, temper expectations and test widely, as some things might not work the way you expect when converted to HTML.

And regardless of whether you publish to Flash or HTML, always test the accessibility of your project. Just because it’s HTML doesn’t mean it’s accessible; HTML by nature is more accessible than Flash, but libraries like CreateJS add a lot of complexity to the page, which can easily impact accessibility.

Cleaning up Adobe Captivate’s SCORM Publishing Template, Part 1: Introduction

In this multi-part series, I will walk through the files Captivate outputs when publishing to SCORM 2004, pointing out the bad parts and suggesting alternatives when needed. At the end of the series, I will provide a fully-functional SCORM 2004 publishing template you can use with Captivate 5.5.

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SOAP for SCORM

At DevLearn 2010, Ben Clark and I presented a session named SOAP for SCORM on behalf of LETSI. The topic was the LETSI Run-Time Web Service (RTWS), a proposed modification of SCORM to use SOAP for communication rather than the current JavaScript model. I presented the first half of the session, covering the basic “what” and “why” ideas while Ben covered the technical details (“how”) in the second half.

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Best Practices in E-Learning

Someone recently posted a blog entry ranting about the use of the term "best practices" in our industry. I understand the frustration with thoughtless pronouncements about best practices, especially coming from people who may not know any better; it will often sound a lot like how like mom used to say "eat this, it's good for you" without really knowing whether it's true. However, there is a big difference between best practices in terms of learning theory -- something that's difficult to quantify and/or prove -- and technology.

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SCORM security (two kinds of SCORM people)

I've had a flurry of emails and messages regarding my SCORM cheat the past few days, and have received feedback from a number of well-regarded SCORM aficionados, some of whom contributed to the standard and helped make SCORM what it is today. This is wonderful, I'm very happy to hear from everyone, especially regarding such an engaging topic.

But as I hear more from these seasoned SCORM pros, I've made (what I believe to be) an interesting observation: there is a sharp division between die-hard SCORM developers and casual users. I suppose I've felt this way for a long time, but it's really coming into focus this week. Let me try to define the camps.

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Cheating in SCORM

I'm always surprised how little people talk about cheating in e-learning; maybe it's a fear of revealing just how easy it can be. The fact is, SCORM -- the most common communication standard in e-learning -- is fairly easy to hack. I've whipped up a proof-of-concept bookmarklet that when clicked will set your SCORM course to complete with a score of 100 (works with both SCORM 1.2 and 2004).

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